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Դҹ "蹾кപҹҾ": ͡ѡɳЪҸԻ 㹡ʻЪҸԻš


. ѡ ó ҪѳԵ ŢҸԡʶҺѹл




㹪ǧҹ բʹ¡ԡ蹾кപҹҾ ¹ѡԪҡºҧ աԾҡԨó繴繴µ ҡ駪ǵҧЪ ҡػԾҡԨó駻ǧ 躹ͧҹԴѡ

1.ԴҹѴѡûЪҸԻͧҾ㹡ʴ͡ԾҡԨó (freedom of expression)

2.ա͡ зӤԴҹͻª㹷ҧͧͧ

ͧѡԪҡʹҡäԴҹ١ͧ Ҷ١ͧ հҹԴͧѺ ١ͧ ? С顮¹ ջѭ յͧҧ ?

ѡԪ ¤ (opinion) Ҩҡ֡ͺͪѧѹͤ (bias) 繨еͧ¡ͧͧѡ

1.ѡûЪҸԻСá˹áзӺҧҧ繤Դ (criminalization) ǹǡѺآͧѰ

2.Ѳ¡ѺԴҹ蹾кപҹҾͧ : ͡ѡɳЪҸԻ㹡ʻЪҸԻš



ѡûЪҸԻСá˹áзӺҧҧ繤ԴǹǡѺآͧѰ

1. ѡԵԸ (The Rule of Law)

ѡѪҪԷҪ˹ҵҧѺ ÷С˹áзӺҧҧ繤Դҭ (criminalization) "դ繸" (fair) Сз蹹 (Dennis Baker, 2007; Joel Feinberg, 1984) µͧ˵ؼŷ (objective) ͸Ժ ˵ؼŹ鹡 áзӴѧթѹԷҧѧ (societal consensus) ͧ餹ҡáзӹ "繼µѧ" (harmful to the society)

"" (harm) Ҩ繼µͤʧº æҤ ѡѾ ͡ҡз (victim) ͧáз ѧзѧ зԴФʧ Ҩ繼µͤ蹤 ɰԨͧѧ ͡ҡ ѧҨ繼µŸѹ (good moral) ѧ蹷ѧѧ˹ѹҧؤŷѧعԵ繤Դ Թ (statutory rape) ҡѹѹԧ áзӹҨͤǹѹԹ (Ѥ) ѧ繼µŸ ֧˹繤Դҭ Դ ѡɳйѧաҡ ¡µ˹Ҹáӹ Ҩ繼µǹ м¡ҡǴ 繡ҡ ѧҼԴŸ ֧˹繤Դҭ

ػ ͼµ͵ (victim) ١зԷ ѹ繰ҹͧá˹ҡáз繤Դҭҹ §ǹ˹ µѧҧҡ繵ǪҴҡá˹Դҭҹդ繸 ҧͧҨ "" 繵Ǥ Ф´ѧҧҧ "" ѧѧ Ѻáзӹ !

ѡâͧҪԷҹǹ˹觢ͧ "ѡԵԸ" ͧСͺӤѭͧѡûЪҸԻ·顮·繸˹㨢ͧ ˹ 繤Դҭ

2. ѡûЪҸԻ¡ѺäͧآͧѰ

͡ҡѡԵԸ 繷Ѻѹ· ЪҸԻ ѡӤѭͧǹѡ

ǹá ӹҨ٧ش㹡ûͧЪҪ Ѱż黡ͧͧҨҡԹͧЪҪ »ЪҪӹҨͧ (ЪҸԻ·ҧç) ͻЪҪ͡駼᷹ӹҨ᷹ (ЪҸԻ·ҧ) лЪҪǹ㹡úúҹͧ

ǹͧ ͤءѧѡդ (human dignity) Ҥѹ (equality) ԷҾ (freedom) ШӡѴ¡·ЪҪͧ͡ ͡¼ҹ᷹ ա䡤ͧԴ ҹصŧŷ繡ҧ

繻ЪҸԻ¡ִѡ÷ͧ 駻´ лȵҧѡùٻẺҧ ѹ ҧкͺЪҸԻ·վҡѵ繻آ ҷ ѧ ໹ ҧȡкͺЪҸԻ·ջиҹҸԺ繻آ ҷ Ѱԡ Թ кûͧеҧѹҧ ءȡִѡ÷ͧ͹ ѹ ੾ѡ÷ͧ

ԧкͺЪҸԻѧкѰŷᵡҧҡ¡ѹ͡ٻẺա ȷջиҹҸԺ繻آҨкиҹҸԺ (presidential system) ͻиҹҸԺ繷駻آͧѰ лآѰ ŧͺûͧ դѺԴͺҧͧ Ѱԡ ԻԹ ҧȡջиҹҸԺ繻آ ͧѺԴͺҧͧ չ¡ѰѰźѺԴͺҧ᷹ͧ Թ ѹкѰ (parliamentary system)

ȷվҡѵç繻آᵡҧѹ »кѰ ҡѵç繻آ çҪ蹴Թ çӵйӢͧѰŷҨҡ͡ ֧ͧçѺԴͺҧͧ ֧դӾٴ "ҡѵç (the King reigns) çͧ (but not rules)" ҹѧ ໹ 繵 ҡѵҧȡçлͧû仴 ੾л㹡 ҷ ش

Ҩ繻ЪҸԻٻẺ ҧѺ "آͧѰ" (head of state) հҹеҧҡ价ء㹻ȹ հҹкؤհҹ "ʶҺѹ" (institution) "᷹Ѱͻ"

ѡùѡҧȷ繡¨յླ ѡѰ٭ͧȻЪҸԻ·

ѧ 㹡ҧ иҹҸԺ ;ҡѵç͡ԷФѹ (privileges and immunities) »С ҷ ҨͧͧʹԹ ͻآͧѰ㹢зç˹ ˵ع ͧиҹҸԺտ ໹ ͧиҹҸԺ§ Թ Ѱԡҡ ͤͧиҹҸԺ ١Һѧɡ ŵͧ¡ͧ բ¡鹡óջиҹҸԺջઢͧշͧѧ ЪѧɵҧҤ͹ѭҵ͵ҹ÷ҹ͡ԷͧآͧѰ!

Ѱ٭ͧȻЪҸԻ¡¡آͧѰᵡҧҡؤŸ੾лȷվҡѵ繻آ ҷ

Ѱ٭ 1814 ҵ 5 ѭѵ "ͧҡѵç繷þѡ (sacred) Шж١͵Ǩͺ"

Ѱ٭ഹ 1953 ҵ 13 ѭѵ "ҡѵͧçѺԴҧͧ ͧҡѵç繷þѡ (sacrosanct) ..."

Ѱ٭ 1970 ҵ 88 ѭѵ "ͧҡѵ çç㹰ҹѹԴ (inviolable) ѰյͧѺԴͺ᷹ҡѵ"

Ѱ٭໹ ҵ 56 (3) ѭѵ "ͧҡѵçç㹰ҹѹԴ (inviolable) ͧçѺԴͺ ҧͧ"

Ѱ٭ѡ ҵ 4 ѭѵ "ͧùؤçç㹰ҹѹԴ (inviolable)"

һȷվҡѵҧѭѵѰ٭ͧѺҪʶҹѹѡԷ (sacred) 繷þѡԴ (inviolable) Ӥѭ ͧͧ੾е˹觾ҡѵ ͧ件֧ǹǹͧ ѧҡ¤ "the person of the King" "ͧҡѵ" ѹ繡äͧѰ٭ҡһآͧѰ繻иҹҸԺ

͡ҡѰ٭ 㹻ȻЪҸԻ¢ͧšѧպѭѵԢͧ¸ҤͧآͧѰ ͧ ͧѰ㹰ҹʶҺѹա ͧѰ ͧ

ѧ ẺЪҸԻкѰҷվҡѵ繻آ ѡ͹ Сѡɳѡäͧ駾ҡѵ Ѱ

ҡѵ վҪѭѵҴ¡ 1848 (The Treason and Felony Act, 1848) ҵ 3 觡˹ͧСͺԴҹҧ駡Դ;õȢͧ稾ҪԹչҶ ùʹ͡ջиҹҸԺ᷹稾ҪԹչҶҨդԴҹ ҧá ôԹյҪѭѵԹشԴ㹻 1883 ҡ©Ѻ "Ѻ" աѧѺա

͡ҡ ͹ ѭ Ңعҧ ҧӹҨŧҭҰҹ "ԴѰ (contempt) Դ͡Է (breach of privilege)" öԨóǨѰ仨ѺҢѧѹͧҹþԨóҢͧصԸ ҡطó šӹҨԨó ͧ¡ͧ ( Brass Crosby"s Case 19 St. Tr. 1147) ӹҨ֧ŧɤӾٴ͢¹蹻ҷ˹ Ҫԡ (Erskine May, 1983, p.124, 152)

͡ҡ ѧդԴҹԴӹҨ (contempt of court) 繤Դ͹ оҪѭѵ Contempt of Court Act 1981 ҨԴӹҨշ駤Դҭзҧ ҹԴ͡þ 軯ԺѵԵ þԾҡ ѴҧкǹԨó 蹻ҷŴ¡ɳ ҡзӵ˹ (direct contempt) 觢ѧѹ ҡзӹ͡ (indirect contempt) ˹ҷͧ¡÷ͧ

͡ҡѧ ȻЪҸԻ·վҡѵç繻آ ա·ӹͧ» ҷ ˹Դҹ蹾кപҹҾҡѵ (defamation) ͼҪ蹴ԹͧҧɨӤءԹһ (ҵ 101 šҭ) жҡзӼԴ;кǧҹǧҧ (ҵ 19) ԴҾǹ (ҵ 21) (ҵ 23) ҨѺͧҢͧɷзӵͺؤŸ (ҵ 102) ʹ ͡áͧ蹾кപҹҾͧСз;ҡѵç繪ͺҹ

Ź ໹ ҧդԴҹ Ǥ Դҹ繡ô蹾кപҹҾҡѵ Ӥءˡ͹֧ лѺ 300-3,000 ѧ ó蹾кǧҹǧ Ӥءͧ͹֧ͧ лѺ 100-2,000 ѧ Ź 蹾кപҹҾҡѵͧҧɨӤءԹһ ҡ蹾ҪԹ;ըӤء ໹ͧҧɨӤءˡ͹֧ͧ ͡ҡ »ȷվҡѵ դԴҭҰҹ蹻آͧѰҧ ԵŹ Ź (wikipedia, l?se majest?)

3. ѡҤ Ҿ㹡ʴԴ Сäͧѧ

ԧѡûЪҸԻ¨Դ٤ҤҾ ੾Ҿ㹡ʴԴСɳҤԴ繡ԧ ҤҤẺõç 觷͡Ժѵ (discrimination) ء繢ѴѡҤ ͡ԺѵԺҧҧ˵ؼФ ͺѺҪԷշӡѴ ҡѹѹԧ ͺҡ繡͡Ժѵ 繡͡ԺѵԷ繸 (fair discrimination) ѺѹѴѡҤ äͧآͧѰᵡҧҡ仡 äͧͧâͧѰᵡҧҡ仡 繡͡ԺѵԷ繸ӡѹ价ء ú͡ҢѴѡҤ ѡҤź͡ ûԺѵԵ觷ᵡҧѹ»Ժѵ͹ ѹҧҡصԸ ͡Ժѵ㹷ҧǡ (positive discrimination) ͪ¤ԡ ͡ѧҡҪͤ仨֧ Ф÷ѴѡҤҧ

Ҿ蹡ѹ ҪšѺҾբͨӡѴ¨зԴ͹ҸԻФ ˵ع ӻСԷоͧ 1789 4 ֧˹ "Ҿ öСзӡ㴡繡úǹ ѧ ԷԵҵԢͧФա§ͨӡѴ੾зͧҪԡ蹢ͧѧ öԷҹǡѹ ͨӡѴҹ С˹ºҹ"

ѡùҡ㹻ԭҡҴԷªͧ˻ЪҪҵ 1948 㹻Ѩغѹ ੾Т 19 ҴҾ觤ԴСʴ͡ (freedom of expression) 29 ੾ (2) "㹡ԷҾͧ ؤŷءͨӡѴ˹¡ ͻªҫ觡ѺþԷҾͧ蹵 зʹͧѺŸ ʧº¢ͧЪҪ ʴԡ÷ѧЪҸԻ"

ѹԧ ءȻЪҸԻ¡ѺҾբͨӡѴ СèӡѴҾ鹵ͧ¡·ǧ繼͡ ͼ᷹ЪҪ繼͡ ֧ջº͡Ҿ㹡ʴԴ͡ʴ͡鹡Դöд 蹻ҷ ءѺҾ㹡ʴԴʴ͡شŧ ͵ͧͧ 㹪§ õȢͧ (֧˹繤Դҹ 蹻ҷ) ͧ (» Ҿͧ˭ ҾѧǢͧ繤Դ) ͧŸ (ͧ ˹ѧ ͧԴ͹ ͧҡѹ¡Ѻ繤Դҭç ) ͧʧºФ蹤 (ɳԭǹ͡ )

ѭҷԴ鹡 ͨӡѴҾ㹡ʴ͡Ѻѡѹͧء ͤͧ ͧŸ ͤͧ蹤Фʧº ͹л ¢ͧ "Ÿ" äŸͧͧ? еͧͧ§? ѹͧͺࢵ (extent) дѺ (degree) ͧͨӡѴҾ㹡ʴ͡ᵡҧѹ ¢ͧ "蹤ͤʧº" ջѭͧͺࢵдѺ͹ѹл

çӤѭͧѭ зءѺͨӡѴҾ㹡ʴ͡ѹ 趡§ѹͧ繢ͨӡѴҤ дѺ

ѭյ è繼ѴԹҡ÷˹觶ͧ仨ӡѴ ա˹觶ͧ鹵ͧӡѴ 㴷Ӷ١

Ѱԡ ѧ Ҿ㹡ʴ͡ҡ֧ԾҡԨóФʵ ˹ѧ ѡȡʹٺѹ㹷Ҹó 㹻 ʴ͡Դ з㹷Ѻǵ͵Ǵ¤Թ 繤Դҭç ТѴѡʹСҧعç!

繻ЪҸԻ 繻ЪҸԻ ö١ üԴ?

ͧ繤ѹҧ֡ҧ¡Ѻʵ (Law and Ethics) Ǥ ä觷Ͷ١ 觷÷ж١¸ (ethical) ä觷ͼԴ 觷÷ (unethical) 繼µѧ (harmful to the society)

Ҷҷš ١-Դ§˹ Ф١Դ§˹ǹ鹡ͷ "" ҹҶ١ͼԴ ҡͼ༴稡÷ҧ¸ ͧ觷͢ҵðҹͧš (Ethical dictatorship) ͷ¡еѾʵ ¸óѵ (ethical absolutism)

Ҷ㹻ѭҢҧö١ üԴ ҧ繻ЪҸԻԶբͧ Զ觨¸ѷ (ethical relativism) Ͷһл ѧѧѲШ¸ҡ ᵡҧѹüԴ 繤ҡ·šͧ ҵͧ ҡ㨼ҡ ¢ ӵ繾ҵѴԹ١Դͧ蹷šҵðҹͧͧ !

Դ㨡ҧþѡդͧ þѲԶժԵͧѧ Ѻҡ繤ᵡҧ ѧ˵ ѧ Ҥ繻ЪҸԻ¡ Ҥ Ҿ㹤ԴСʴ͡ ᵡҧѹ仵 ѧ Ѳ Ш¸ͧǹ˭лѧ Ӥѭ ᵡҧѹҧѡûЪҸԻ ҤҾͧ١

㨢ͧͧ "ѧ" (society) ͧ繵ǵ ͧûͧ Դѧѧж١Դͻªҧѧ ҡ˧ҢͧкͺЪҸԻҹշɮѭѧ (Social Contract) ͧѺ?

ѧ 㹢зѧ˹ѺһЪҸԻ кͺûͧѧշشҹ лЪҸԻ¡ѡӤѭѧǢҧ ੾ѡҤҾͨӡѴ ѧѧԷ (self determination) С˹´ѡäͨ͢ӡѴҹ

÷ѧѧô ô繤Դ ŧѹͧԹ͹շ 觷١ͧѧѧ 褹ѧԷ仵ѴԹѧŧɡôѧ繻ЪҸԻ! Ф÷繤㨡ҧ仡ѧ繻ЪҸԻ ѡԵԸ ŧɤԴͧͧҹкǹûѹ繡͡Ժѵ !

÷ѧ Ź ໹ ա»ȵѴԹҡ蹻ҷҡѵ繤ԴҡҴ蹤 ԷТͧѧѧҹ ѲŸҧѧФǹ˭㹻ҹҡáзӴѧ "" ѧ

ԧ ͨӡѴҾᵡҧѹ仵ѧѧյҧաҡ Ҿ㹡ʴ͡㹻ǹ˭㹵ѹ͡١ӡѴ¡ Ҿ㹡ûСͺҪվ١ӡѴ¡蹡þѹ ͡͹ Ҿҧ¶١ӡѴ¤Դҹѡ㹺ҧ 褧÷ըԵ㨻ЪҸԻ仵ѴԹһѧҹ繻ЪҸԻ§ѧѲШ¸ѹʴ繢ͨӡѴҧѧᵡҧҡѧͧ

(ҹ "Ѳ¡ѺԴҹ蹾кപҹҾ" ѹѧ÷ 7 ¹ 2552)


˹ 7


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